我国环保部门与美国大使馆发布的空气质量指数(AQI)为什么不一样?

今天请大家随矮马一起来看一看Beijing-Air.com网站上的图表与数据。在2014年8月19日9时,北京环保中心在东四设置的监测站点,其PM2.5浓度为118ug/m3。而位于朝阳区的美国大使馆在馆内设置的站点,其PM2.5浓度为123ug/m3。从浓度水平上看,这两个站点PM2.5浓度基本上没有太大的差别。但是我们却看到AQI数值存在着很大的差异,东四站点的AQI数值为155,而美国大使馆AQI数值为186。看到这样的数字,您一定会问“为什么即使PM2.5监测浓度比较接近的情况下,我国环保部门与美国大使馆发布的AQI数据却明显不一样呢?

2014年8月19日9时北京环保中心与美国大使馆发布的PM2.5及AQI数据

以上内容摘录于Beijing-Air.com网站,原始数据分别来自于北京空气质量网站及美国大使馆网站

 

矮马这就来给大家解读一下其中的“奥秘”:

总的来说是一句话“计算AQI的标准方法,我国与美国是不一样的”

首先涉及到的是针对于何种污染物计算AQI的问题。美国大使馆的空气质量指数AQI仅以PM2.5 浓度值计算得出,是针对PM2.5的AQI数值。而北京市环保中心除了监测PM2.5,还同时监测PM10,二氧化硫(SO2),二氧化氮(NO2),一氧化碳(CO),臭氧(O3)这5种污染物,并分别计算各污染物的空气质量分指数(IAQI),最后取各分指数中的最大值作为当前的空气质量指数AQI数值,并将对应的污染物作为首要污染物。以北京环保中心发布的数据为例,当PM2.5不是首要污染物的时候,北京市环保中心发布的AQI值并不是针对于PM2.5的AQI值,而是针对于其他污染物的AQI值。

当然,在北京,多数情况下首要污染物就是PM2.5时,我们看到的环保部门发布的AQI,也是针对于PM2.5的AQI数值。就像我们所举的例子一样。依据北京环保中心发布的数据,2014年8月19日9时东四站点首要污染物是PM2.5,其AQI数值也是针对于PM2.5的AQI数值,但是依然与美国大使馆的AQI数值有很大的区别。这就涉及到了计算AQI的另外一个问题,污染物在不同AQI水平下的浓度限值,这也是计算AQI的重要参数。由于我国在计算PM2.5的AQI的标准中,每个AQI级别对应的PM2.5浓度限值与美国存在着差异,所以导致了最终发布的AQI数值的差异,见下表以及矮马博客相关文章“空气质量指数(AQI)分级”

空气质量指数(AQI) 中国2016标准PM2.5的24小时平均浓度(微克每立方米) 美国2012标准PM2.5的24小时平均浓度(微克每立方米)
0-50 0-34.99 0-12.0
51-100 35.0-74.99 12.1-35.4
100-150 75.0-114.99 35.5-55.4
151-200 115.0-149.99 55.5-150.4
201-300 150.0-249.99 150.5-250.4
301-400 250.0-349.99 250.5-350.4
401-500 350.0-500 350.5-500

相信通过以上的解读,当您再看到我国环保部门与美国大使馆AQI数据不一样的时候,一定可以给身边的人讲清楚其中的原委,与矮马一起来宣传空气污染的相关知识。

 

文章分类 PM2.5科普
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