由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题

秸秆焚烧确实会造成临近城市人口聚居地区的空气污染。有些时候,秸秆焚烧能引起大范围空气质量急剧恶化。

秸秆是农作物收割过后剩下来的杆状生物质。在有些地方,秸秆可以用来进行编织,从而产生经济利益,因此在这些地方,秸秆一般不会被就地焚烧。秸秆也可以用于造纸,或者用于生物质焚烧发电,但是由于秸秆产量的季节性,而经济效益不明显。在大多数情况下,农民选择将秸秆付之一炬,这样省时,省力,焚烧后的秸秆灰烬会很快回田肥土。秸秆不经焚烧也能回田,但是秸秆自然腐化过程漫长。将秸秆用机器打碎处理,能够加快回田过程,但是其效率仍然远比不上焚烧迅速而且效果好,尤其是对于一年多季轮种的地区。

然而,秸秆焚烧会带来环境问题。秸秆焚烧给城市居民原本就疲于应对的空气质量问题雪上加霜。

但是,不知道大家是否意识到没有,如何应对秸秆焚烧,实际上是一个环境公平的问题。虽然城市地区的大量人口会从禁止秸秆焚烧受益,但是农民本身实际上并不能从停止秸秆焚烧获益多少,反而会一定程度地遭受经济损失。那么为什么要农民独自承担这种经济上的损失呢?目前,各地政府对待农民焚烧秸秆采取严惩和奖励并重的原则。其中奖励的机制是鼓励就地将秸秆用机器打碎,政府给予购买机器一定的补贴。这或多或少体现了出于环境公平的补偿意愿。但是这与完全补偿农民使用其它方式处理秸秆造成的经济损失还是有差距的。不然不能解释大量的偷烧行为。也就是说,这个奖励对农民来说,远不能补偿其用工增加、购买机器以及回田缓慢造成的经济损失。

笔者并不认为政府制定前述奖励机制时考虑到了环境公平问题。然而,不从根上解决这个认识问题,就不太可能出台能从根本上减轻秸秆焚烧环境危害的环境政策。

如何在这个问题上体现环境公平,并没有统一的现成答案。可以向城市居民收取特殊的环境税用于完全补偿农民的秸秆焚烧替代费用;也可以采取焚烧许可证制度,根据气象和扩散条件适时、适量地颁发焚烧许可,从而人为地规划和分散秸秆焚烧的环境危害。然而,无论具体采取哪一种措施,都不能离开环境公平这一根本原则。

 

标签: ,
文章分类 清洁空气行动
2 comments on “由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题
  1. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about
    my problem. You are amazing! Thanks!

  2. Hurrah! Finally I got a web site from where I know how to really
    take useful data concerning my study and knowledge.

34 Pings/Trackbacks 对 "由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题"
  1. bahis siteleri说道:

    perfect

    thank you for a very good article

  2. … [Trackback]

    [...] Here you can find 26704 additional Information to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  3. … [Trackback]

    [...] There you can find 88303 more Info to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  4. cheap cvv说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Information to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  5. ip booter说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Info on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  6. child porn说道:

    由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题

    http://neufpass.fr/hello-world/

  7. … [Trackback]

    [...] Information to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  8. slot999说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More Information here on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  9. eurocasino说道:

    由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题

    https://scenicartistmilly.com/?p=1

  10. meritking说道:

    由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题

    https://diiris.com/obratnaya-svyaz/

  11. relx说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  12. kardinal stick说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More here on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  13. … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More Information here to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  14. sbo说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Info to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  15. … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More on to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  16. … [Trackback]

    [...] Information to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  17. … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  18. the thingiverse说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] There you can find 30112 more Info on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  19. … [Trackback]

    [...] There you will find 80186 additional Information on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  20. … [Trackback]

    [...] Information to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  21. dig this说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More here on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  22. … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  23. My Website说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More Info here on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  24. replica watches说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Find More Info here to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  25. kids toys说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Here you can find 42486 more Info on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  26. Predrag Timotić说道:

    … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More here on that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  27. … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More here to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

  28. … [Trackback]

    [...] Read More to that Topic: aimayubao.com/blog/2014/06/24/由秸秆焚烧想到的环境公平问题/ [...]

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

*

我是人类 *

您可以使用这些HTML标签和属性: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>