空气质量指数(AQI)分级

空气质量指数(AQI)是世界各国政府机构用来定量地描述空气质量好坏的一个客观指标.我国以前(目前在没有试行AQI的地方仍然)使用的是空气污染指数(API),道理却是一样的.世界各国普遍地以空气质量指数差距50为间隔,来划分空气质量等级.在我国,空气质量质量等级依次被命名为优,良,轻度污染,中度污染,重度污染和严重污染,并用不同的颜色区分表示这六个等级.实际上,其他国家也基本上使用大致相同的颜色来表示同样的六个等级.

AQI数值 AQI级别 AQI类别及表示颜色 对健康影响情况 建议采取的措施
0~50 一级 绿色 空气质量令人满意,基本无空气污染。 各类人群可正常活动
51~100 二级 黄色 空气质量可接受,但某些污染物可能对极少数异常敏感人群健康有较弱影响。 极少数异常敏感人群应减少户外活动
101~150 三级 轻度污染 橙色 易感人群症状有轻度加剧,健康人群出现刺激症状。 儿童、老年人及心脏病、呼吸系统疾病患者应减少长时间、高强度的户外锻炼。
151~200 四级 中度污染 红色 进一步加剧易感人群症状,可能对健康人群心脏、呼吸系统有影响。 儿童、老年人及心脏病、呼吸系统疾病患者避免长时间、高强度的户外锻炼,一般人群适量减少户外运动。
201~300 五级 重度污染 紫色 心脏病和肺病患者症状显著加剧,运动耐受力降低,健康人群普遍出现症状。 儿童、老年人和心脏病、肺病患者应停留在室内,停止户外运动,一般人群减少户外运动。
>300 六级 严重 褐红色 健康人运动耐受力降低,有明显强烈症状,提前出现某些疾病。 儿童、老年人和病人应当停留在室内,避免体力消耗,一般人群应避免户外活动。

我们可以注意到,当空气污染等级颜色变为橙色即轻度污染时,健康人群已经表现为刺激症状,并不是要到紫色以上才开始对人体有害.另外,黄色,即良,也并不意味着这时的空气就对您是无害的.因为它已经开始伤害某些极端敏感人群.从环境监测总站的AQI日报,我们可以注意到,我国东部地区的城市,能够经常出现优的,其实并不多见.这就意味着,当大多数人在谈论空气质量优良而高兴的时候,我们还有极端易感人群仍然需要刻意保护自己免于空气污染的无形伤害.对这部分人群来说,良也是污染,良并不是好的意思.中国是人口大国,极端敏感人群是少数人,但绝不是一个小数目.

即使如此,我们还应该认识到,与发达国家相比,尽管我们也用了六个等级划分空气质量,也用了基本相同的颜色区分这六个等级,然而这六个等级的真正含义却是不尽相同的.原因是,计算空气质量指数的公式中,我们用来划分等级的具体的空气污染物的浓度间隔是不同于发达国家的–我们是远高于发达国家的数值的,见下表(PM2.5 的情况还可以参见前文”关于PM2.5的空气质量标准”).

空气质量指数(AQI) 中国2016标准PM2.5的24小时平均浓度(微克每立方米) 美国2012标准PM2.5的24小时平均浓度(微克每立方米)
0-50 0-34.99 0-12.0
51-100 35.0-74.99 12.1-35.4
100-150 75.0-114.99 35.5-55.4
151-200 115.0-149.99 55.5-150.4
201-300 150.0-249.99 150.5-250.4
301-400 250.0-349.99 250.5-350.4
401-500 350.0-500 350.5-500
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文章分类 PM2.5科普
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