与PM2.5有关的空气质量标准

由于PM2.5的健康杀手身份,世界卫生组织以及许多发达国家很早就开始制定空气中的PM2.5浓度标准,用以规范政府行为,保护公众的健康利益。2005年,世界卫生组织发布了新版《空气质量准则》(AQGs),其中的第一项就是颗粒物(PM2.5和PM10)的浓度标准。为了保护本国公民的健康,很多国家也都制定了自己的空气质量标准。不同国家的发展水平和空气质量管理能力存在差异,而且在制定标准时,所采用的健康风险评估方法不尽相同,在技术可行性和经济、政治等方面的考虑也不同,所以不同国家制定的标准之间是有差异的。

今年2月29日,我国国家环境保护部与国家质量监督检验检疫总局联合发布了新修订的《环境空气质量标准》,首次设定了PM2.5浓度限值,并将其纳入“空气污染物基本项目”进行控制。新标准将于2016年起在全国实施。

表  颗粒物的空气质量标准:年平均浓度

PM2.5(微克/立方米) 标准制定的依据
WHO过渡时期目标t-1 (IT-1) 35 相对于 AQG 水平而言,在这个水平的长期暴露会增加大约15%的死亡风险。
WHO 过渡时期目标-2 (IT-2) 25 与IT-1 相比,在这个水平的暴露会降低大约6% (2%~11%)的死亡风险。
WHO过渡时期目标-3 (IT-3) 15 与IT-2 相比,在这个水平的暴露会降低大约6% (2%~11%)的死亡风险。
WHO质量空气准则 (AQG) 10 对于 PM2.5的长期暴露,这是一个最低水平,在这个水平,总死亡率、心肺疾病死亡率和肺癌的死亡率会增加(95%以上可信度)。
中国环境空气质量标准*,一级 15
中国环境空气质量标准*,二级 35

 

表  颗粒物的空气质量标准:24小时平均浓度

PM2.5(微克/立方米) 标准制定的依据
WHO过渡时期目标t-1 (IT-1) 75 以已发表的多中心研究**和 Meta 分析***中得出的危险度系数为基础(超过 AQG 值的短期暴露会增加 5%的死亡率)。
WHO 过渡时期目标-2 (IT-2) 50 以已发表的多中心研究和 Meta 分析中得出的危险度系数为基础(超过 AQG 值的短期暴露会增加 2.5%的死亡率)。
WHO过渡时期目标-3 (IT-3) 37.5 以已发表的多中心研究和 Meta 分析中得出的危险度系数为基础(超过 AQG 值的短期暴露会增加 1.2%的死亡率)。
WHO质量空气准则 (AQG) 25 建立在 24 小时和年均暴露的基础上。
中国环境空气质量标准*,一级 35
中国环境空气质量标准*,二级 75

*中国《环境空气质量标准》将环境空气功能区分为两类:一类区为自然保护区、风景名胜区和其他需要特殊保护的区域;二类区为居住区、商业交通居民混合区、文化区、工业区和农村地区。一类和二类区分别适用一级和二级浓度限值。

**多中心研究,是由多个研究者按照同一个试验方案在不同试验点和单位同时进行的临床试验。

***Meta分析,是对以往的大量单独研究结果进行综合的统计学分析方法。

 

从表中可以看到,我国新颁布的《环境空气质量标准》中,居民区的PM2.5浓度标准是参照WHO的过渡时期目标-1这个最低标准制定的。即使按期达标,仍然不能达到WHO更严格的推荐标准。暴露在这样的空气中仍会有相对较高的死亡率。因此,PM2.5的治理是一个长期、艰巨的任务。

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